Archives of Basic and Clinical Research
Original Article

Changes Caused by Smoking in Hemogram Parameters in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department

1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University Medical Faculty, Erzincan, Türkiye

2.

Department of Public Health, Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University Medical Faculty, Erzincan, Türkiye

Arch Basic Clin Res 2024; 6: 127-134
DOI: 10.5152/ABCR.2024.23247
Read: 122 Downloads: 74 Published: 27 May 2024

Objective: The aim of this 3-stage study is to reveal the smoking rate after the exclusion criteria was applied in patients who presented to the emergency department and to assess if smoking has any effect on their hemogram test results. And at last, the opinions of those included in the study are sought regarding whether establishing a smoking cessation center in the emergency department would be beneficial or not.

Methods: After exclusion criteria were applied, a total of 2000 patients presenting to the emergency department were included in the study. The study was carried out in 3 stages. In the first stage, the smoking rate of 2000 patients was investigated. In the second stage, in addition to the exclusion criteria at the beginning of the study, in order to reduce the possible impact on blood parameters, those with any comorbidities (n = 747) were excluded, and hemogram parameters were compared in the remaining patients (n = 1263). Then hemogram levels were compared both in male and female in smokers and non-smokers since the normality limit of some of these values differs for both genders. In the third stage, establishing a smoking cessation center in the emergency depart ment would be beneficial or not was statistically researched.

Results: In total, 50% of the patients were male and 50% were female. The mean age was 51.57 ± 20.29 years. Of the patients, 28.26% (n = 566) were smokers. In total, 38.7% (n = 385) of men and 17.1% (n = 178) of women were smokers. The smoking rate was 30.7% in those without comorbidities, which was higher. The rate we obtained, although not directly comparable to the results of other studies due to differences in inclusion and exclusion criteria, was similar to the rate in the general population. There were significant differences in white blood cell (WBC), erythrocyte (RBC), and hemoglobin counts, as well as mean corpuscular volume (MCV) between the 2 groups. No significant difference was found in platelet count. White blood cell count was 12% higher, erythro cyte count was 3.13% higher, MCV was 1.5% higher, and eosinophil count was 24.1% higher in smokers. Hemoglobin level was 7.8% higher in smokers. When men and women without comorbidities were analyzed separately as smokers and non-smokers, hemoglo bin, WBC, and eosinophil counts were higher in male smokers; hemoglobin, WBC, MCV, and eosinophil counts were higher in female smokers. Mean corpuscular volume and RBC count in men, and RBC count in women were higher in the smoker group, although it was not statistically significant. Only 33.7% of patients stated that it would be beneficial to establish a smoking cessation unit in the emergency department.

Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has severe adverse effects on hematological parameters that might be associated with a greater risk of developing chronic diseases. The rate of smoking among the patients in the emergency department is similar to the general population. Making the necessary arrangements for emergency departments to become primary centers for smoking cessation and including this topic as part of residency training could be beneficial.

Cite this article as: Işık B, Salcan S. Changes Caused by Smoking in Hemogram Parameters in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department. Arch Basic Clin Res. 2024;6(2):127-134.

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